Campus Monitor - City University of New York System

Student Voices

  • November 23, 2015 – CUNY Hunter College Student (Name Unknown/Twitter) “Full-blown anti-Semitism allowed at my college. . . . I witnessed this and froze in fear.” Read more

  • November 17, 2015 – CUNY System Student (Zeke) “I’m a CUNY student.  SJP continuously decides to not treat students of differing views with respect or dignity. They create an environment of fear and bullying to further their political agenda.” Read more

  • November 17, 2015 – CUNY System Student (A.T.) “I am a CUNY student and what the SJP group is doing and stands for is disgusting, especially the ways they attempt to cause mayhem. They restort to rudeness, disrespect, racial slurs, and violence. The SJP’s need to be stopped.” Read more

  • November 17, 2015 – CUNY System Student (Maor) “I too was harassed with hate speech at this protest that was supposed to be against tuition hike that somehow turned into antisemitic and anti Zionist protest.” Read more

  • November 16, 2015 – CUNY Hunter College Jewish Student (Yosef) “As I left the rally, someone yelled, “We should drag the Zionists down the street!” It took a few seconds to register that I was a Zionist walking down the street. A CUNY public safety officer protected me from being attacked.” Read more

  • November 16, 2015 – CUNY Hunter College Jewish Student (Yosef) “I along with three other pro-Israel, Jewish Hunter students became the target of verbal abuse. Protestors screamed at us that we did not belong in CUNY. Some even threatened us with physical harm.” Read more

 

Antisemitism Tracker

Total Antisemitic Activity:

To see more information on how AMCHA determines antisemitic activity, click HERE.
To report a concern, click HERE.

Classification Date-Description
TARGETING JEWISH STUDENTS AND STAFF: DENIGRATION;
HISTORICAL;
DENYING JEWS SELF-DETERMINATION;
DELEGITIMIZATION;
BDS ACTIVITY (CALLS FOR BDS)
11/12/15 – The advertisement for a rally at Hunter College demanding a freeze in tuition, which was endorsed by 10 local SJP chapters, contained several classic and contemporary antisemitic tropes: it called CUNY’s leadership “the Zionist administration,” claimed that the administration “reproduces settler-colonial ideology throughout CUNY through Zionist content of education; it suggested that the administration’s ties to israel were responsible for tuition hikes; and it claimed that the birthright trips and study abroad programs in Israel were in “occupied Palestine,” effectively denying the existence of the Jewish state. In addition, one of the endorsers’ demands included on the advertisement was that CUNY “divests from Israel, companies that maintain the Zionist occuption.”
ANTISEMITIC EXPRESSION: DEMONIZATION;
DELEGITIMIZATION;
BDS ACTIVITY (EVENT)
11/16/15 – A member of Reveolutionary Student Coordinating Committee made remarks at a meeting of the CUNY Board of Trustees, in which he falsely accused Israel of being a “settler colonial” state and of perpetrating “genocide” and “terrorism” against Palestinians, and he promoted an anti-Israel divestment resolution.
DELEGITIMIZATION;
BDS ACTIVITY (CALLS FOR BDS)
11/23/15 – Several hundred CUNY faculty signed the statement “Affirming the Rights of Students to Organize, Protest, and Resist (CUNY),” which included a condemnation of the CUNY administration for not divesting from Israel and referred to “Israeli apartheid.”
BDS ACTIVITY: BDS VOTE 4/17/16 – The Doctoral Student’s Council discussed and then passed a resolution supporting an academic boycott of Israel by a vote of 42-19 with 9 abstentions. The council represents nearly 5,000 graduate students.
CALLS FOR BDS 12/9/15 – CUNY for Palestine organized a “twitter storm,” asking people to send tweets to CUNY administrators that included the promotion of an anti-Israel divestment campaign.

 

In the News ?

May 16, 2017:
The Yeshiva World – 100 Holocaust Survivors Ask Cuomo To Stop Terror Advocate Linda Sarsour From Addressing CUNY Graduates

December 2, 2016:
The Algemeiner – Revisiting CUNY’s Flawed Antisemitism Investigation

November 21, 2016:
San Francisco Bay Area Independent Media Center – University of California must protect civil rights in the face of Trump’s persecution of Muslims, Arabs, and Palestine activists

October 26, 2016:
Forward – The Forward’s Responsibility to Expose Campus Anti-Semitism

September 22, 2016:
Mosaic – A Way to Deal with Campus Anti-Semitism without Suppressing Freedom of Speech
(Description note, “The report also provides a needed reminder that administrators should exercise their own free-speech rights when they encounter anti-Semitic conduct among their student body. . . . Given the imbalanced campus environment on matters related to Israel, administrators also need to be more proactive. Faculty—especially untenured faculty—who invite pro-Israel speakers must be protected from retaliation . . . and campuses should adopt the University of Chicago’s free-speech principles as an affirmation that despite the generally unfavorable climate, pro-Israel speech by students will be welcomed.”)

September 18, 2016:
Daily News – Vile speech at CUNY: Attacks on Jewish students intolerable

September 16, 2016:
The Times Of Israel – Actions of campus pro-Palestinian group not anti-Semitic, probe finds

September 15, 2016:
Campus Reform – CUNY confirms SJP anti-Semitism, but declines to ban group

September 14, 2016:
New York Post – CUNY’s cockamamie excuses for blinking at anti-Semitism

September 13, 2016:
Forward – Pro-Palestinian Group Vindicated of Anti-Semitism Charges After CUNY Probe

September 13, 2016:
The Jewish Week – Campus Bias To Get Fresh Scrutiny After CUNY Report

September 13, 2016:
The Algemeiner – Watchdogs, Jewish Officials Slam ‘Failed’ CUNY Antisemitism Investigation, Say It Will Encourage Further Jew-Hatred

September 10, 2016:
New York Post – Anti-Semitic incidents at CUNY considered ‘protected’ speech

September 9, 2016:
Forward – CUNY Anti-Semitism Investigation Finds Little Crossing the Bounds of Protected Speech

June 19, 2016:
Hamodia – Bill to Defund Pro-BDS Groups at CUNY Stalled in Assembly

May 24, 2016:
ACLJ – CUNY President Responds to ACLJ’s Anti-BDS Letter – Commits to Take Appropriate Action

May 13, 2016:
Charisma News – BDS Spreads Anti-Semitism Across U.S. Campuses

May 13, 2016:
The Algemeiner – BDS Spreads Anti-Semitism Across U.S. Campuses

May 13, 2016:
The Algemeiner – Jihadi hate group privileged at Vassar

May 12, 2016:
The Investigative Project on Terrorism – BDS Spreads Anti-Semitism Across U.S. Campuses

May 5, 2016:
Advocate – The DSC votes to boycott Israeli academic institutions

May 4, 2016:
ACLJ – Major University System Embraces Invidious and Illegal Anti-Israel Discrimination

April 20, 2016:
Forward – Free Speech Is Not the Issue With CUNY’s Students for Justice in Palestine
(Description note, “SJP supporters screamed ‘Jews out of CUNY!’ ‘Jews are racist sons of bitches!’ and ‘We should drag the Zionists down the street!’ All of this is blatant Jew hatred and shouldn’t be tolerated, in the same way that we wouldn’t and shouldn’t tolerate the targeting of any other ethnic or racial group.”)

April 17, 2016:
The Times Of Israel – City University of NY doctoral students back boycott of Israel

April 17, 2016:
The Jerusalem Post – City University of NY doctoral students back academic boycott of Israel
(Description note, “A group of doctoral students at the City University of New York passed a resolution calling for an academic boycott of Israel. The Doctoral Students’ Council resolution, which called to “boycott Israeli academic institutions for as long as the Israeli state continues to violate Palestinian rights under international law,” passed on Friday afternoon with 42 students voting in favor and 19 opposed, with 9 abstentions. The council represents nearly 5,000 graduate students. The resolution also expressed support for the campus organization Students for Justice in Palestine, the New York Daily News reported.”)

April 15, 2016:
Daily News – State Sen. Jack Martins calls out CUNY Chancellor James Milliken on Israel university boycott, pro-Palestine campus group activities
(Description note, “Sen. Jack Martins (R-Nassau County) sent a letter Friday to CUNY Chancellor James Milliken blasting a scheduled vote later in the day by CUNY’s Doctoral Student Council on a resolution calling for a boycott of Israeli colleges and universities…Martins wrote, “CUNY’s leadership needs to denounce this resolution in its entirety and suspend SJP from CUNY campuses now, today,” he wrote. “Chancellor Milliken, the time for action is now. I urge you to send a strong, clear message that there is no place for hate on our campuses. The world is watching.”)

April 13, 2016:
Politico New York – CUNY, NYU grapple with student proposals to condemn Israel

April 13, 2016:
The Algemeiner – Opponents Mobilize as BDS Votes Loom at New York City Graduate Schools
(Description note, “The NYU resolution does differ in important ways from the CUNY one, however. While both target graduate students and endorse academic boycotts, the NYU resolution also calls on both NYU and the Graduate Student Union to divest from and decline to work with Israeli institutions and international companies doing business with Israel. Another difference is that the NYU Graduate Student Union is affiliated with the United Auto Workers Union (UAW), which makes its policies ultimately subject to UAW approval. Four months ago, UAW overturned a BDS resolution passed in 2014 by the University of California Graduate Student Union, also affiliated with UAW, on the grounds that the resolution espoused ‘discrimination and vilification against Israelis and UAW members who are of Jewish lineage,’ and could ‘easily be construed as academic and cultural discrimination against union members on the basis of their national origin and religion.’”)

April 11, 2016:
The Times Of Israel – Opposing BDS at CUNY

April 8, 2016:
Forward – New Challenge for CUNY Over Campus Anti-Semitism

April 6, 2016:
The Jewish Voice – NY Lawmakers Unite to Confront ‘Students for Justice in Palestine’ on CUNY Campuses

March 31, 2016:
Forward – Shut It Down: 35 New York Politicians Target Pro-Palestinian Campus Group

March 31, 2016:
Jewish Press – Hikind, Werpin, Call on CUNY to Kick Out SJP

March 31, 2016:
Jewish Standard – Anti-Semitism at CUNY must be addressed

March 30, 2016:
Jewish Telegraphic Agency – 35 NY legislators demand ‘immediate suspension’ of city university pro-Palestinian group

March 30, 2016:
Forward – CUNY Under the Anti-Semitism Microscope

March 23, 2016:
The Algemeiner – Lawsuit Against CUNY Alleges Pervasive, Explicit Antisemitism Among Kingsborough College Administrators

March 22, 2016:
The Times of Israel – NY’s City University loses funds over anti-Semitism claims

March 21, 2016:
NY Daily News – EXCLUSIVE: Pro-Israel group accuses CUNY professor of anti-Semitic behavior

March 18, 2016:
Forward – Campus Anti-Semitism Prompts New York Lawmakers To Slash Funds

March 17, 2016:
The Wall Street Journal – Fight Over CUNY Funding Takes Unforeseen Turn
(Description note, “Few in Albany were prepared, however, when the Senate, in its own budget proposal, criticized CUNY’s handling of alleged anti-Semitism. In light of the issue, the Senate said it is denying funding until it is satisfied with the school’s response “and this difficult and atrocious situation is adequately addressed.”)

March 16, 2016:
The Jewish Week – Monitoring Hate on Campus

March 9, 2016:
The Jewish Week – CUNY Response To Alleged Bias ‘Inadequate’

March 4, 2016:
JTA – After ‘Zionist pig’ incident at Brooklyn College, anti-Semitism probe launched

March 3, 2016:
The Times of Israel – CUNY holds anti-Semitism probe after ‘Zionist pig’ incident

March 1, 2016:
The Algemeiner – City University of New York Takes Action in Wake of Allegations of Antisemitism on Its Campuses

March 1, 2016:
New York Post – City Council’s Jewish Caucus taking on CUNY anti-Semitism

February 29, 2016:
New York Post – CUNY to conduct probe into claims of anti-Semitism
(Description note, “CUNY Chancellor James Milliken ordered the probe, and the system will assemble a Campus Climate Task Force to crack down on all forms of bigotry.”)

February 25, 2016:
Daily News – An education in tolerance: CUNY must end anti-Jewish agitation on campus

February 24, 2016:
New York Post – ‘Jew haters’ spread fear at CUNY colleges
(Description note, “Among the incidents cited by the group: At John Jay College, which specializes in criminal justice, Jewish students have been the target of so many slurs that at lease three have transferred. One John Jay administrator responded to a Jewish student’s concerns by saying, “What are these white kids complaining about?” On Nov. 12 at Hunter College, during a demonstration for free tuition, Jewish students were denounced as “racist sons of bitches,” “fascists” and “Nazis” and were greeted with comments such as “Jews out of CUNY.” One student tweeted at the time, “Full-blown anti-Semitism allowed at my college . . . I witnessed this and froze in fear.” At Brooklyn College, the pro-Palestinian group disrupted a faculty meeting last week and called a professor wearing a yarmulka a “Zionist pig.” Brooklyn College slammed the “hateful” comments and the disruption. At The College of Staten Island, a pro-Palestinian demonstrator told a Jewish student last November, “I don’t hug murderers.” Swastikas also defaced the college’s desks and walls.”)

February 24, 2016:
The Jewish Press – ZOA: CUNY Infested by Anti-Semitism

February 24, 2016:
Daily News – Pro-Palestinian student group ‘harassing’ Jewish CUNY students

December 8, 2015:
SJP EVENT – What does Palestine have to do with a Liberated CUNY?

(Event description states, “Ever increasing tuition, heightened admissions standards, hyper-militarization, and investments into mass incarceration are what face the students of CUNY and the oppressed communities of NYC today. What does this all have to do with Palestine?
Join Hunter SJP, CUNY4Palestine, and International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network (IJAN) as we discuss how the Palestinian struggle relates to the struggle for access to education in CUNY, and how we can not divorce the fight against the privatization and militarization of education with international solidarity with oppressed peoples. Speakers on the panel: – Nerdeen Kiswani: Chair of NYC Students for Justice in Palestine – Christopher Stone: Associate Professor of Arabic and Head of the Arabic Program at Hunter College; member of CUNY4Palestine – Max Ajl: Contributer for Jacobin Magazine and Jadaliyya; member of International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network”)

November 19, 2015:
Arutz Sheva – Op-Ed: How Hitler-era brown shirts took over Hunter College
(Description note, ““Zionism out of CUNY!” “Zionists out of CUNY!” “Intifada, Intifada” was chanted, screamed, roared, over and over again. You may see it here and here”)

November 19, 2015:
IJAN – IJAN Stands with NYC Students for Justice in Palestine

November 18, 2015:
The Wall Street Journal – Indulging Hate Even a Little Leads to Bad Consequences

November 18, 2015:
J Space News – Report Shows Increase in Anti-Israel Activity on U.S. College Campuses
(Description note, “The New York City chapter of SJP recently invoked anti-Semitic stereotypes in a statement promoting the Million Student March, a national day of protest over tuition fees, student debt and wages for campus workers. The group referred to those who run the City University of New York (CUNY) as a “Zionist administration,” a framing clearly intended to make Zionism a derogatory word through implicitly linking ‘Zionists’ to financial challenges that students on campus face and invoking a classic anti-Semitic stereotype which blames Jews for the financial woes of others.”)

November 18, 2015:
JNS – Demands for intifada on American college campuses

November 17, 2015:
The Jewish Week – C Hunter College Condemns Anti-Semitic Chants

November 16, 2015:
Change.org – Request that CUNY shut down its chapters of New York Students for Justice in Palestine
(Description note- a petition asking CUNY to shut down chapters of New York SJP has 3,000 signatories in under two days)

November 16, 2015:
Daily News – Wanted: Safe spaces for Jews at CUNY
(Description note, “At last Thursday’s Million Student March, a nationwide student demonstration for free public college tuition, I along with three other pro-Israel, Jewish Hunter students became the target of verbal abuse. Protestors screamed at us that we did not belong in CUNY. Some even threatened us with physical harm — to drag us down the street because we expressed our support for Israel.”)

November 16, 2015:
The Jewish Week – Hunter College Condemns Anti-Semitic Statements

November 15, 2015:
The Algemeiner – Hunter College ‘Strongly Condemns Antisemitic Comments’ Made at CUNY Student Rally

November 15, 2015:
JP Updates – Hunter College Anti-Semitic Chants Condemned
(Description note, “Joint Statement of Hunter College President Jennifer Raab, USG President Chika Onyejiukwa and Hunter College Senate Chair Sandra Clarkson in response to hate speech used at Campus Rally – We, the President of Hunter College, the President of Undergraduate Student Government  and Chair of the Hunter College Senate, on behalf of our campus constituencies, strongly condemn anti-Semitic comments made at a rally last night seeking to exclude members of our campus community based solely on their identity. As the Chancellor said in remarks today, CUNY is “a place of inclusion, not exclusion.”  While we are committed to the right of free speech and free expression for all within our campus community, there is no place for hate speech and other acts of bigotry, harassment, intimidation, exclusion and intolerance based on an individual’s beliefs and backgrounds.  Such behavior is unacceptable on our campus.  Hunter must be a community where all express their views and opinions, without personally attacking others based on who they are and what they believe. 
Jennifer J. Raab, President of Hunter College; Sandra Clarkson, Hunter Senate Chair; Chika Onyejiukwa, President of Undergraduate Student Government”)

November 13, 2015:
J Space News – CUNY Administration Makes Clear Anti-Semitism Has No Place on Its Campuses
(Description note, “The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today commended the administration of the City University of New York (CUNY) for issuing a statement which made clear that “invoking discriminatory language reeking of thinly veiled bigotry, prejudice, anti-Semitism or other behavior” is inconsistent with its mission. The CUNY statement was issued by Frank Sanchez, Vice Chancellor of Student Affairs regarding the disturbing rhetoric from the New York City chapter of Students for Justice in Palestine (SJP). The group invoked anti-Semitic stereotypes by referring to those who run CUNY as a “Zionist administration” in the lead up to the Million Student March, a national day of protest over tuition fees, student debt and wages for campus workers with over 100 universities and colleges participating. “We commend CUNY for stepping up to the plate and making clear that the anti-Semitic rhetoric espoused by SJP has absolutely no place on its campuses,” said Evan R. Bernstein, ADL New York Regional Director. “We can appreciate CUNY’s affirmation of First Amendment Rights, but at the same time reiterating that hateful language is unacceptable.”)

November 13, 2015:
The Algemeiner – ‘Zionists Out of CUNY!’ ‘Long Live the Intifada!’ Chanted at CUNY Student Protest at Hunter, Administration Looks Other Way (VIDEO)

November 12, 2015:
J Space News – At Million Student March, Students For Justice in Palestine’s Anti-Semitic Stereotyping

November 12, 2015:
Forward – Pro-Palestinian Students Blame Tuition Hikes on ‘Zionists’

November 12, 2015:
Israel National News – Anti-Semitism? CUNY students attack ‘Zionist administration’

November 12, 2015:
SJP EVENT – Million Student March – Students for Justice in Palestine Contingent

November 12, 2015:
New York Post – Hatemongers hijack a New York student protest
(Description note, “Yet CUNY’s leaders barely issued a peep. The university merely released a long can’t-we-all-get-along statement by the vice-chancellor of student affairs: “Students should also be cognizant of the efforts of a few to distract attention from important issues in higher education . . . by invoking discriminatory language reeking of thinly veiled bigotry, prejudice, anti-Semitism or other behavior inconsistent with our educational mission.”)

November 12, 2015:
Gatestone Institute – Selective Outrage on Campus

November 12, 2015:
The Algemeiner – CUNY Fails to Condemn Antisemitic Rally at Hunter College

November 12, 2015:
JTA – Protesting tuition costs, pro-Palestinian student groups in NY blame ‘Zionists’

November 11, 2015:
The Tower – At CUNY, Students Blame Israel for Tuition Hikes

November 11, 2015:
The Algemeiner – Blaming ‘Zionist Administration’ for Their Financial Plight, CUNY Students to Hold Protest at Hunter College

November 7, 2014:
Heritage Florida Jewish News – CUNY is no place for BDS movement’s hate

October 31, 2014:
Shalom Life – Op-Ed: CUNY Is No Place For BDS Movement’s Hate

October 29, 2014:
Jewish Times – Anti-Israel Resolution Fails in CUNY Vote

October 27, 2014:
JTA – CUNY grad students fail to advance Israel academic boycott resolution

October 26, 2014:
jns.org – CUNY is no place for BDS movement’s hate

October 26, 2014:
The Algemeiner – CUNY Students Should be Applauded for Defeat of Latest Boycott Israel Resolution

October 25, 2014:
The Jerusalem Post – BDS resolution shot down by CUNY grad students

October 25, 2014:
Haaretz – CUNY graduate students vote down academic boycott of Israel

October 24, 2014:
The Algemeiner – Anti-Israel Resolution Fails in CUNY Doctoral Students’ Vote

October 14, 2014: 
The Algemeiner – Caught in Their Crossfire

September 27, 2014:
 Haaretz – U.S. academics bemoan ‘rigged’ fight in battle against BDS

September 19, 2014:
 The College Fix – Jewish Students Nearly Shut Out Of Vote On Israeli Divestment, Academic Boycott

September 17, 2014:
 Haaretz – My students are considering boycotting Israel. That would be a serious mistake

September 17, 2014:
 The Jewish Voice- CUNY Pro-BDS Vote Shelved After Heated Debate

September 15, 2014:
Inside Higher Ed- CUNY Ph.D. Students Postpone Vote on Israel Boycott

September 14, 2014:
Haaretz – CUNY student body postpones BDS move ‘out of respect for Shabbat’ – The 4,700 member Doctoral Students Council in New York is considering a call to boycott Israeli academia and divest from Israeli companies.

September 12, 2014:
JTA – CUNY grad students to vote on BDS

September 12, 2014:
Tablet – CUNY BDS Group Schedules Anti-Israel Vote for Shabbat

September 11, 2014:
Jewish Press – Anti-Israel Group at CUNY Plots Secret Sabbath BDS Campaign

September 11, 2014:
JP Updates – Anti-Israel CUNY Group Plans Secret Friday Night BDS Vote to Stifle Jewish Opposition

September 11, 2014:
Washington Free Beacon – Anti-Israel Group Plots Secret BDS Vote – Aim to ram through divestment measure on Jewish Sabbath

September 1, 2014:
AMCHA – On SJP’s Freedom to Organize: An Open Letter from CUNY Faculty

December 27, 2013:
UNIVERSITY STATEMENT – Statement by CUNY Interim Chancellor William P. Kelly on American Studies Association’s Boycott of Israeli Universities

 

Photo Album - Campus Antisemitism

Source Credit: Students for Justice in Palestine at City College Facebook (November 16, 2015)

Source Credit: Students for Justice in Palestine at City College Facebook (November 16, 2015)


Source Credit: Hunter SJP Facebook (December 1, 2015)

Source Credit: Hunter SJP Facebook (December 1, 2015)


Source Credit:  The Jewish Week;

Source Credit: The Jewish Week; “Zionists out of CUNY” chanted students at the march (November 17, 2015)


Source Credit:  Poster says,

Source Credit: Poster says, “Zionists out of CUNY” in top right of the BDS picture, (November 16, 2015)


To report antisemitic activity at this or any other campus, you may:

BDS Tracker

April 17, 2016 – Passed – Doctoral Student Council passed a resolution supporting an academic boycott of Israel by a vote of 42-19 with 9 abstentions. The council represents nearly 5,000 graduate students.

October 24, 2014 – Defeated – Doctoral Council fails to reach required votes to pass divestment resolution


BDS Instigators: Student & Faculty


STUDENT BDS

Student Group(s) Promoting BDS:
SJP

FACULTY BDS

Number of Faculty Endorsing the Academic Boycott of Israel: 35

  1. Tanya Agathocleous
  2. Ammiel Alcalay
  3. Anthony Alessandrini
  4. Tom Angotti
  5. Moustafa Bayoumi
  6. Ellen Belcher
  7. Avram Bornstein
  8. Renate Bridenthal
  9. Matt Brim
  10. Jacqueline Brown
  11. Ashley Dawson
  12. Alexander Elinson
  13. Johanna Fernández
  14. Tami Gold
  15. Gregory Johnson
  16. Andrea Khalil
  17. Randall LaSalle
  18. Johanna Lessinger
  19. Devin Molina
  20. Rupal Oza
  21. Sonali Perera
  22. John P Pittman
  23. Ana Ramos-Zayas
  24. Amal Rassam
  25. Lynn Roberts
  26. Corey Robin
  27. Rivka Rudner
  28. Christa Salamandra
  29. Jillian Schwelder
  30. Jonathan Shannon
  31. Robyn Spencer
  32. Christopher Stone
  33. Ellen Tremper
  34. Sharon Utakis
  35. Christopher Winks

Signatures


AMCHA Activism

There are currently no AMCHA Initiative campaigns for this campus.